# Applications of Projectile Motion in Real Life and Technological Advancements

### Abstract

Projectile motion is a form of motion experienced by an object or particle (a projectile) that is projected in a gravitational field, such as from Earth's surface, and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only. In the particular case of projectile motion of Earth, most calculations assume the effects of air resistance are passive and negligible. The curved path of objects in projectile motion was shown by Galileo to be a parabola, but may also be a straight line in the special case when it is thrown directly upwards. The study of such motions is called ballistics, and such a trajectory is a ballistic trajectory. The only force of mathematical significance that is actively exerted on the object is gravity, which acts downward, thus imparting to the object a downward acceleration towards the Earth’s center of mass. Because of the object's inertia, no external force is needed to maintain the horizontal velocity component of the object's motion. Taking other forces into account, such as aerodynamic drag or internal propulsion (such as in a rocket), requires additional analysis. A ballistic missile is a missile only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight, and whose remaining course is governed by the laws of classical mechanics. The elementary equation of ballistics neglect nearly every factor except for initial velocity and an assumed constant gravitational acceleration. Practical solutions of a ballistics problem often require considerations of air resistance, cross winds, target motion, varying acceleration due to gravity, and in such problems as launching a rocket from one point on the Earth to another, the rotation of the Earth. Detailed mathematical solutions of practical problems typically do not have closed-form solutions, and therefore require numerical methods to address.

### Downloads

### References

2. Nolte, David D., Galileo Unbound (Oxford University Press, 2018) pp. 39-63.

3. Tatum (2019). Classical Mechanics (PDF). pp. ch. 7.

4. Stephen T. Thornton; Jerry B. Marion (2007). Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. Brooks/Cole. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-495-55610-7.

5. Atam P. Arya; Atam Parkash Arya (September 1997). Introduction to Classical Mechanics. Prentice Hall Internat. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-13-906686-3.

6. Rginald Cristian, Bernardo; Jose Perico, Esguerra; Jazmine Day, Vallejos; Jeff Jerard, Canda (2015). "Wind-influenced projectile motion". European Journal of Physics. 36 (2): 025016. Bibcode: 2015EJPh...36b5016B. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/36/2/025016. S2CID 119601402.

7. Walter Greiner (2004). Classical Mechanics: Point Particles and Relativity. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 181. ISBN 0-387-95586-0.

8. Ballistic Missile Defense, Glossary, v. 3.0, US Department of Defense, June 1997.

9. "Archytas of Tar entum." Archived December 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Technology Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece/ Retrieved: May 6, 2012.

10. "Ancient history." Archived 2002-12-05 at the Wayback Machine Automata. Retrieved May 6, 2012.

11. Lyn Wadley from the University of the Witwatersrand (2010); BBC: Oldest evidence of arrows found

12. McEwen E, Bergman R, Miller C. Early bow design and construction. Scientific American 1991 vol. 264, pp. 76–82.

13. Herbst, Judith (2005). The History of Weapons. Lerner Publications. ISBN 9780822538059. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via Google Books.

14. Ballistics in the Seventeenth Century: A Study in the Relations of Science and War with Reference Principally to England, CUP Archive, 1952, p. 36

15. Niccolo' Tartaglia, Nova Scientia, 1537. (a treatise on gunnery and ballistics).

16. Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences, Leiden, 1638, p. 249

17. Nolte, David D. Galileo Unbound (Oxford University Press, 2018) pp. 39–63.

18. "The free Dictionary". Retrieved 2010-05-19.

19. "Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2010-05-19.

20. Pepin, Matt (2010-08-26). "Aroldis Chapman hits 105 mph". Boston.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-30.

*Central Asian Journal of Theoretical and Applied Science*,

*3*(11), 226-236. Retrieved from https://cajotas.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJOTAS/article/view/1014

Copyright (c) 2022 Central Asian Journal of Theoretical and Applied Science

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.